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Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Specialist from Acıbadem Kozyatağı Hospital Dr. Cengiz Canpolat, He said that the success rate of leukemia, which is the first among the cancers seen in childhood, has reached 80 percent, and that many factors affect the success of the treatment, such as improved quality of patient care, improved laboratory facilities and better determination of risk classification.
More common in men
Leukemia in 2.5 years of treatment for girls, but boys, 3.5 years, but took a time, indicating that the Professor. Dr. Cengiz Canpolat explains why:
Hastalık In men, the disease is slightly more common than in girls. Cancer cells tend to hide in the testis. For example, very little matter can easily go to the brain through the blood, the brain is protected because of the tight bonds between the cells. Because of the barriers that protect the reproductive organs, leukemia cells stored here can easily escape the effect of chemotherapy, and cancer cells can recur from the testis.
The treatment of men lasts more than a year. However, drugs used in the treatment, reproductive function is not given in doses that would jeopardize. If the disease occurred during adolescence, sperm freezing process can be done. Canpolat said, “However, the patient's risk factors and response to treatment should be good. With the positive results of the genetic and molecular tests before starting treatment, there are protocols for shorter treatment in some group of patients and these are being implemented. ”
The incidence of the disease seen in 3-4 people per 100 thousand in the community is not different from that of Western societies. Dr. Cengiz Canpolat answers the curious questions about the disease as follows:
At what age is it most common?
It is most commonly seen in the 2-5 age range. Leukemias account for 25-30 percent of childhood cancers, which is why we can say that it ranks first in childhood cancers.
Are the causes known?
- Childhood leukemia is different from adult leukemia. While environmental factors are important in adults, genetic factors are prominent in children.
- Preventing cancer in the body, cancer-causing genes in the 'mutation' called the changes are preparing the ground for leukemia.
- Sometimes nuclear radiation, sometimes viruses can cause leukemia, especially Epstin-Barr Virus, which leads to what we call a “kiss-a-disease arasında that we associate with leukemia.
- Some chemical substances, such as 'benzene', commonly used in the petrochemical industry, can cause leukemia if children come into contact at an early age.
- Certain drugs used to treat cancer and radiation can also sometimes cause leukemia.
- There is a collection of findings accusing electro magnetic radiation, not fully clarified, such as high-voltage lines, base stations. They need to be carefully monitored, and exposure has to be avoided, even if it is not yet certain.
- Most leukemias have a genetic basis. The presence of familial cancer syndromes is an example. In the family, breast cancer, soft tissue cancer, brain tumors, adrenal tumors, leukemia, such as cancers such as children are seen more than leukemia can occur.
- Genetic factors Some diseases such as immune deficiency and Down Syndrome can also lead to leukemia.
Is it possible to treat acute and chronic leukemia?
More than 80 percent of childhood leukemia can be treated. When we categorize the treatment according to various risk groups, we see the following table:
- 90 percent of leukemia patients in the best risk group can be treated.
- Acute myeloblastic leukemia in the treatment success varies between 50-60 percent.
Can parents understand this disease?
The most important problem in the diagnosis of leukemias is the lack of early recognition. Early diagnosis of the disease is difficult because it can be confused with many diseases. Main symptoms include:
- If there is a fever that does not fall and lasts for a long time, some tests should be performed and the patient should be closely monitored.
- The growth of the liver, spleen, lymph nodes in the body may be a symptom of the disease.
- Numerous and spontaneous or slight impact on the body
bruises, small spot bleeding not exceeding, nose and gum bleeding are among the symptoms of the disease.
- 25 percent of patients with arm or leg pain can also be seen. This can be interpreted as growth pain or rheumatic disease, which can lead to delayed diagnosis.
- Patients may have symptoms such as pallor, quick fatigue and fast breathing due to anemia.
If the patient has hormonal disorders, it may need to be followed by endocrinologists. Since cortisone is used during chemotherapy, orthopedic problems may occur. These can sometimes lead to a process leading to hip replacement. The susceptibility to infections can be seen between the first six months and a year until the immune system is restored. Because of the decrease in immunity due to immunization, chemotherapy is repeated six months after the end of treatment. If full recovery is achieved, regular follow-ups can continue their normal lives and continue their normal lives. However, these patients should also be monitored for a long time in terms of secondary cancers that may develop in the future.